Internet as Playground and Factory


The participants in the conference submitted this list of suggested readings in the context of digital labor.

Adorno, Theodore. "Free Time." The Culture Industry: Selected Essays on Mass Culture. Ed. J. M. Bernstein. London: Routledge, 1991. 187-97.

Andrejevic, Mark. "Watching Television Without Pity." Television & New Media 9.1 (2008): 24-46.

Aneesh, A. Virtual Migration: The Programming of Globalization, Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2006.

Arendt, Hannah, Responsibility and Judgement, ed and intro Jerome Kohn, New York: Schocken, 2003.

Anzaldua, Gloria E., “(Un)natural bridges, (Un)safe spaces.” In This Bridge We Call Home: Radical Visions for Transformation, editor’s preface, 1-5. Gloria E. Anzaldua and Analouise Keating, eds. New York and London: Routledge, 2002.

Arvidsson, Adam. "Ethical Economy - Book." Ethical Economy. Web. 07 Sept. 2009.

Clark, Jessica, and Nina Keim. Public Media 2.0 Field Report: Building Social Media Infrastructure to Engage Publics. Rep. Center for Social Media (American University), 2009.

Baran, Paul and Sweezy, Paul. Labor and Monopoly Capital. New Left Review, 1966.

Barbrook, Richard. Imaginary Futures From Thinking Machines to the Global Village. New York: Pluto, 2007.

Barbrook, Richard. The Class of the New. London:, 2006.

Bauwens, Michel. "Michel Bauwens - The social web and its social contracts: Some notes on social antagonism in netarchical capitalism." Re-Public (2008). Re-Public Re-Imagining Democracy. Jan. 2008. Web. 7 Sept. 2009. <>.

Bauwens, Michel. Passionate Production and the Happiness Surplus. International Conference. On “Happiness and Public Policy”. United Nations Conference Center (UNCC) Bangkok, Thailand. 18-19 July 2007. Retrieved from ; (draft version at )

Beck, John C., and Mitchell Wade. Got Game. How the Gamer Generation Is Reshaping Business Forever. New York: Harvard Business School, 2004.

Beller, Jonathan. The Cinematic Mode of Production: Attention Economy and the Society of the Spectacle (Interfaces: Studies in Visual Culture). New York: Dartmouth College, 2006.

Beniger, James. The Control Revolution: Technological and Economic Origins of the Information Society. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1986.

Benkler, Yochai. The Wealth of Networks How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom. New York: Yale UP, 2007.

Boczkowski, Pablo. Digitizing the News: Innovation in Online Newspapers. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2004.

Butt, Danny. “Local Knowledge: Place and New Media Practice”, Leonardo, vol 39, no. 4 (2006), 323-326.

Castells, Manuel. Communication Power. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

Clark, Gregory. "Tax and Spend, or Face The Consequences." The Washington Post. 09 Aug. 2009. Web. 7 Sept. 2009.

Clough, Patricia T. and Goldberg, Greg and Schiff, Rachel; Weeks and Aaron and Willse, Craig. “Notes Toward a Theory of Affect-Itself,” Ephemera, 2007.

Coleman, E. Gabriella,Three Ethical Moments in Debian (September 15, 2005). Available at SSRN:

Crary, Jonathan. Suspensions of Perception Attention, Spectacle, and Modern Culture (October Books). New York: The MIT, 2001.

Crawford, Matthew. Shop Class as Soul Craft. New York: Penguin Press, 2009.

Crawford, Matthew. "The Case for Working With Your Hands." The New York Times. 21 May 2009. Web. 7 Sept. 2009. <>.

Cvejic, Bojana, ‘What Do We Mean When We Say that We Are Transforming Practice into Production of Space?” in Walking Theory, contribution to Documenta 12 Magazine Project (2007)

De Angelis, M. (2002). Marx and primitive accumulation: The continuous character of capital’s “enclosures.” The Commoner, 2 September.

"User-Generated Platforms," in Working Within the Boundaries of Intellectual Property. (Rochelle Dreyfuss, Diane L. Zimmerman, and Harry First, Editors) (Oxford University Press, forthcoming 2009).

Dibbell, Julian. Play Money Or, How I Quit My Day Job and Made Millions Trading Virtual Loot. New York: Basic Books, 2007.

Drew, Jesse From the Gulf War to the Battle of Seattle: Building an international alternative media network. In At A Distance: Precursors to Art and Activism on the Internet . Edited by N. Neumark and A. Chandler. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2005.

Dyer-Witheford, Nick. Cyber-Marx. Cycles and circuits of struggle in high-technology capitalism. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1999.

Elkin-Koren, Niva. Governing Access to User-Generated-Content: The Changing Nature of Private Ordering in Digital Networks, in GOVERNANCE, REGULATIONS AND POWERS ON THE INTERNET (E. Brousseau, M. Marzouki, C. Méadel eds.) (Cambridge University Press, forthcoming 2009).

Elkin-Koren, Niva. Exploring Creative Commons: a Skeptical View of a Worthy Pursuit in The Future of the Public Domain (P. Bernt Hugenholtz & Lucie Guibault, eds., Kluwer Law International, 2006).

Fairfield, Joshua,Virtual Property. Boston University Law Review, Vol. 85, page 1047, 2005; Indiana Legal Studies Research Paper No. 35. Available at SSRN:

Fortunati, Leopoldina. "Immaterial Labor and its Machinization" Ephemera: Theory & Politics in Organization 7(1): 139-157 (2007).

Foucault, Michel. The Birth of Biopolitics. Lectures at the College de France 1978-1979 Palgrave MacMillan, 2008. (esp. chapter 9 and 10)

Froomkin, A. Michael, ' Toward a Critical Theory of Cyberspace' in Harvard Law Review, Volume 116, January 2003. 751-873.

Fuchs, Christian. Internet and Society: Social Theory in the Information Age. New York: Routledge, 2008.

Fuchs, Christian. Information and Communication Technologies & Society: A Contribution to the Critique of the Political Economy of the Internet. European Journal of Communication 24 (1), 2009, 69-87.

Fuchs, Christian. A Contribution to the Critique of the Political Economy of Transnational Informational Capitalism. Rethinking Marxism 21 (3), 2009. 387-402.

Fuchs, Christian. Some Theoretical Foundations of Critical Media Studies: Reflections on Karl Marx and the Media. International Journal of Communication 3 (2009), 2009. 369-402.

Fuchs, Christian. 2009. Social Networking Sites and the Surveillance Society. A Critical Case Study of the Usage of studiVZ, Facebook, and MySpace by Students in Salzburg in the Context of Electronic Surveillance. Salzburg/Vienna: Research Group UTI. ISBN 978-3-200-01428-2. ICT&S Center Research Report.

Galloway, Alexander R. "Language Wants to Be Overlooked: On Software and Ideology." Journal of Visual Culture." 5:315 (2006)

Galloway, Alexander. "We Are All Goldfarmers." Culture and Communication (2007). Web. 7 Sept. 2009.

The Attention Economy and the Net by Michael H. Goldhaber First Monday, Volume 2, Number 4 - 7 April 1997

Gregg, Melissa. 2009 “Learning to (Love) Labour: Production cultures and the affective turn” Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies 6 (2): 209-214

Gregg, Melissa. "Banal Bohemia: Blogging from the Ivory Tower Hot-desk" Convergence 15(4) 2009

Mills, C. Wright. The Power Elite. Oxford UP, 1956.

Golumbia, David. The Cultural Logic of Computation, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2009. (esp. chapters 6 and 7)

Goodman, Ellen P. Public Service Media 2.0 (2008).

Grimmelmann, James. The Ethical Visions of Copyright Law.

Halavais, Alex. Search Engine Society. Polite. 2009.

Hall, Steve. Winlow, Simon . Ancrum, Craig. Criminal Identities and Consumer Culture: Crime, Exclusion and the New Culture of Narcissism.

Holmstrom, N (1997). Exploitation, in Exploitation: Key Concepts in Critical Theory eds. Kai Nielsen & Robert Ware. Atlantic Highlands: Humanities Press International, pp. 81-102.

Holmes, Brian "Future Map"

Huws, Ursula. (2003), Material World: The Myth of the Weightless Economy, pp. 126-151 in The Making of a Cybertariat: Virtual Work in a Real World (NY: Monthly Review Press).

Interactivity is Evil! A critical investigation of Web 2.0 by Kylie Jarrett First Monday, Volume 13, Number 3 - 3 March 2008

Kane, Pat. Play Ethic A Manifesto for a Different Way of Living. London: Papermac, 2005.

Lazzarato, M. (1996). Immaterial Labor. In P. Virno & M. Hardt (Eds.), Radical Thought in Italy: A Potential Politics (pp. 133–50). University of Minnesota Press.

Lazzarato, Maurizio (1997). "Immaterial Labor"

Maurizio Lazzarato, ‘The Political Form of Coordination’, transversal (2004),

Lefebvre, Henri, and Michel Trebitsch. Critique of Everyday Life, Volume II. New York: Verso, 2002.

Lessig, Lawrence. Remix. New York: Penguin Press, 2009.

Liu, Alan. The Laws of Cool: Knowledge Work and the Culture of Information. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004.

Malaby, Thomas. Making Virtual Worlds. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2009.

Marazzi, Christian. Capital and Language: From the New Economy to the War Economy. New York: Semiotext(e), 2008.

McPhee, Christina. "Bare life as editorial subject: on ‘bare life’ in the network –empyre- soft-skinned space." DOCUMENTA MAGAZINE. 08 Sept. 2009 <>.

Mezzadra, S., & Neilson, B. Border as Method, or, the Multiplication of Labor. EIPCP Multilingual Webjournal

Neilson, Brett; Rossiter, Ned.  ‘From Precarity to Precariousness and Back Again: Labour, Life and Unstable Networks’, Fibreculture Journal 5 (2005),

Mitchell, Robert; Waldby, Catherine. "National Biobanks Clinical Labor, Risk Production, and the Creation of Biovalue" (Science, Technology, & Human Values, forthcoming)

Nakamura, Lisa, "Don't Hate the Player, Hate the Game," CSMC, 2009.

Neff, Gina,  John, Amman, Tris Carpenter. eds. Surviving the New Economy. Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers, 2007.

Negri, Antonio; Cascarino, Cesare. In Praise of the Common. Univ Of Minnesota Press, 2008.

Nieborg, D. (2005). Am I Mod or Not? - An Analysis of First Person Shooter Modification Culture. Paper presented at the Creative Gamers Seminar, University of Tampere, Finland.

Kücklich, Julian : Precarious Playbour: Modders and the Digital Games Industry.

P2P Foundation

Loser Generated Content: From Participation to Exploitation by Søren Mørk Petersen
First Monday, Volume 13, Number 3 - 3 March 2008

Postigo, Hector. “America Online Volunteers: Lessons from an Early Co-production Community,” International Journal of Critical Studies.

Postigo, H. (2003b). From Pong to Planet Quake: Post-Industrial Transitions from Leisure to Work. Information, Communication & Society, 6(4), 593–607.

Rettberg, Scott. "Corporate Ideology in World of Warcraft." In Digital Culture, Play, and Identity: A World of Warcraft Reader. MIT Press, 2009.

Rodenbeck, Judith. “Creative Acts of Consumption,” commissioned essay for The “Do-it-yourself
Artwork”: Spectator Participation in Contemporary Art, ed. Anna Dezeuze, Jessica Morgan, Catherine Wood (Manchester: Manchester University Press, forthcoming 2010).

Rogers, K. “Capital Implications: The Function of Labor in the Video of Juan Devis and Yoshua Okón.” In: Social Identities. 15, no. 3. (May 2009).

Ned Rossiter, Organized Networks: Media Theory, Creative Labour, New Institutions. Rotterdam: NAi Publications, 2006.

Rushkoff, Douglas. Life Inc. New York: Random House, 2009.

Marie Evans Schmidt and Elizabeth A. Vandewater. Media and Attention, Cognition, and School Achievement Source: The Future of Children, Vol. 18, No. 1, Children and Electronic Media (Spring, 2008).

Scholz, Trebor. Trebor Scholz and Paul Hartzog: Toward a critique of the social web

Sennet, Richard. The Craftman, Yale Univeristy Press, 2009

Shershow, Scott Cutler. The Work and the Gift. University of Chicago Press, 2005

Shirky, Clay. Here Comes Everybody. New York: Penguin. 2009.

Shirky, Clay. "Shirky: Social Software and the Politics of Groups." Clay Shirky's Internet Writings. 08 Sept. 2009 <>.

Sotamaa, O. (2004). Playing it My Way?: Mapping The Modder Agency. Paper presented at the Internet Research Conference 5.0, Sussex, UK.

Tiziana Terranova 'Free Labour: producing culture for the digital economy' Social Text 18.2 2000, 33-58

Terranova, Tiziana (2003). "Free Labor: Producing Culture for the Digital Economy"

Thackara, John. In the Bubble Designing in a Complex World. New York: The MIT P, 2006.

Eugene Thacker, The Global Genome: Biotechnology, Politics, and Culture. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2006.

Thrift Nigel "Re-inventing invention: new tendencies in capitalist commodification"
Nigel Thrift, Economy and Society Volume 35 Number 2 May 2006: 279/30

Turner, Fred. "Where the Counterculture Met the New Economy: The Well and the Origins of Virtual Community." Technology and Culture 46, no. 3 (2005).

Turner, Fred. From Counterculture to Cyberculture: Stewart Brand, the Whole Earth Network, and the Rise of Digital Utopianism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006.

Turner, Fred. "Burning Man at Google: A Cultural Infrastructure for New Media Production." New Media & Society 11, no. 1&2 (2009): 73-94.

Van Dijck, J., & Nieborg, D. (2009). Wikinomics and its discontents: a critical analysis of Web 2.0 business manifestos. New Media Society, 11(5), 855-874. doi: 10.1177/1461444809105356.

Ulke, Christina, eds., et al., Journal of Aesthetics and Politics, issue 6 (2009)

Paolo Virno, Virtuosity and Revolution.

Virno, Paolo. A Grammar of the Multitude (Semiotext(e) / Foreign Agents). New York: Semiotext(e), 2004.

Qiu, Jack Linchuan. Working-Class Network Society: Communication Technology and the Have-Less in Urban China. MIT Press, 2009.

Virno, Paolo (2008), Multitude: Between Innovation and Negation, trans Isabella Bertoletti, James Cascaito and Andrew Casson, Semiotext(e), New York.

Waldby, Catherine; Cooper, Mellnda. "The Biopolitics of Reproduction: Post-Fordist Biotechnology and Women’s Clinical Labour," Australian Feminist Studies 23.2 (2008): 57-73.

Waldby, Catherine; Mitchell, Robert. Tissue Economies: Blood, Organs and Cell Lines in Late Capitalism Durham: Duke University Press, 2006.

Walkowitz, Daniel J. Hobbies: Leisure and the Culture of Work in America (review)
Journal of Social History - Volume 35, Number 1, Fall 2001, pp. 205-206

Wark, McKenzie. A Hacker Manifesto, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004.

Wershler, Darren. "Writers of the World, Unclench."

Xiang, Biao. Global ‘Body Shopping’: An Indian Labor System in the Information Technology Industry, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007.

Zehle, Soenke; Rossiter, Ned. ‘Organizing Networks: Notes on Collaborative Constitution, Translation, and the Work of Organization’, Cultural Politics 5.2 (2009): 237-264.

Zittrain, Jonathan. The Future of the Internet and How to Stop It. New Haven: Yale University Press. 2009.

Zizek, Slavoj. "The Matrix, or Two Sides of Perversion." European Graduate School EGS Media Art Internet Film Communications Master and PhD Program Graduate Post-Graduate Studies. 1999. Web. 07 Sept. 2009. <>.

Slavoj Zizek, The Parallax View, Cambridge: MIT Press, 2009. 261-67.